All contraceptives are traditionally divided into three types: mechanical, biological and chemical. Of course, different means have different degrees of effectiveness. In fact, no single type of remedy can guarantee one hundred percent the avoidance of pregnancy (unless you practice sexual abstinence). Often, in order to achieve the greatest safety and high level of safety, a combination of different contraceptives is practiced. But it is best to select for yourself specific contraceptives only after consulting with your gynecologist.
This material tells about the most popular contraceptive methods.
Condoms (condoms) are made of latex. It must be worn on the male's sexual organ at the time of an erection, just before the start of sexual intercourse. At the end of ejaculation, the condom is immediately removed and discarded.In addition to its main purpose, this contraceptive is able to protect partners from sexually transmitted infections. The effectiveness of this tool is considered to be quite high and is at least 85 percent. However, the condom may well break, and some do not quite use it correctly.
The helix is a very convenient and highly efficient device placed inside the uterus. Despite a very high percentage of effectiveness (up to 99 percent), it has a number of complications. Therefore, the spiral is not strongly recommended not to use women under the age of 23 years who have no children. This tool is installed and removed only by a gynecologist at the end of the medical examination procedure. The advantage of the spiral is the duration of its use - up to five years.
The effect of the patch is just sticking it to a specific area of the body, and then the hormones are absorbed through the skin into the body. Moreover, this means of contraception acts by delaying the development of the egg, as well as increasing the viscosity of mucus in the cervix.Therefore, during the 1st menstrual cycle, it is common to use 3 patches, which means one patch per week. Then you definitely need to take a week break, and in this very period comes menstruation. The disadvantage of this method can be called the allocation (between cycles) and headache.
This protective agent is an elastic and transparent ring made of synthetic raw materials and containing hormones that are released only after the ring is inserted into the vagina. With the help of a complex membrane system, only a certain number of hormones are secreted in the body every day. A woman herself can both introduce and remove this ring. It is used for contraceptive purposes the entire menstrual cycle, which includes 21 days, and also a seven-day break. The side effects are nausea, spotting, headache, etc.
The method of protection by injection is based on stopping ovulation (the process of egg release from the ovary) by changing the mucous substances in the cervix, changing the composition of the mucous membrane of the uterus, resulting in the development of pregnancy.The effect of this method can last about 3 months. But this method is also not devoid of several serious drawbacks. You may experience problems with bleeding, the appearance of possible edema, headaches, a decrease in the power of sexual desire. And with prolonged use of this contraceptive method may be the destruction of bone tissue.
The contraceptive system Norplant consists of 6 small capsules containing the hormone progestin. These capsules are placed subcutaneously, on the inside of the shoulder, after which the hormone begins to gradually penetrate the blood. The contraceptive effect begins to appear only after 24 hours and can also last for at least five years. The effect is achieved by means of changes in endomtery, which can lead to a significant disruption of the process of egg attachment to the uterine walls. During the application of this implant, various types of intermenstrual discharge may occur, it is also possible that the menstrual cycle is disturbed, depressive state, headache, fluid retention, acne and severe pain in the mammary glands appear.
You must know that sterilization is an irreversible method of radical contraception, leading to absolute infertility (but even here one cannot say about absolute reliability, because there is always a chance that even as a result of the operation, not everything is guaranteed). Male sterilization is a very simple procedure, as a result of which the vas deferens intersect and then ligate. Female sterilization is performed under stationary conditions, and it consists in cutting, as well as ligation of the fallopian tubes. It should be remembered here that, like other surgical operations, there is a risk of complications in sterilization, such as bleeding, infection or spike.
It resembles a dome-shaped cap made of rubber or latex. It is inserted inside the vagina, at least 6 hours before sexual intercourse, and it closes the cervix. In addition, the diaphragm acts as a container for a special cream that suppresses the activity of the male sperm. The principle of its work is similar to the principle of a condom - because these contraceptives do not mechanically give semen into the uterus.
MEANS OF PROTECTION BIOLOGICAL
Contraceptive biological agents are a way to prevent unwanted pregnancy with the help of various kinds of hormonal contraceptives. And with this method, a woman needs to take daily pills, whose composition includes female sex hormones. As a result of their reception, universal hormones will inhibit ovulation, change the state of the environment inside the uterus, and prevent the onset of a possible pregnancy. The percentage of the effectiveness of hormonal contraception is up to 99 percent. There are also combined oral contraceptive hormonal agents, that is, those that contain exclusively gestagen. It is necessary to select hormonal contraceptives only after consulting with your gynecologist. Since there are diseases in which the reception of various hormonal contraceptives is contraindicated.
These hormonal pills no longer include estrogens. Their action is to accelerate the viscosity of the mucus of the cervix, which ultimately makes it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus.These drugs will also be able to slow down the maturation of the endometrium, and as a result, the possibility of attaching the egg to the walls of the uterus becomes almost impossible. Mini-saws are taken without interruption, the entire period when it is necessary to protect themselves from pregnancy. The main disadvantage of this method is a high frequency of breakthrough bleeding. But Mini-pills are an outlet for women, which is contraindicated intake of estrogen, as well as for nursing mothers.
It consists in calculating with the help of simple mathematical operations, calculating the estimated date of the onset of ovulation, as well as abstaining from sexual intercourse in the fertile period.
The beginning of the specified fertile period is established by taking away 18 days from the shortest cycle, and the end - by taking away 11 days from the longest cycle.
The shortest period lasts 28 days, while the longest is 30 days.
The beginning of the fertile period - 28 minus 18 is equal to the 10th day of your cycle.
The end - 30 minus 11 is equal to the 19th day of your cycle.
Consequently, from the 10th to the 19th day of the cycle there is the possibility of fertilization, and therefore during this very period, it is necessary to apply barrier contraceptive methods, or even to abstain from sexual intercourse.Among the disadvantages of this method are mainly its unreliability, since initially it implies a constant and regular menstrual cycle, which, alas, not all women are able to boast.
Based on the calculation of the fertile phase by measuring the rectal temperature of women. Begin to measure rectal temperature on the first day of the cycle. After waking up in the morning, without getting out of bed, the thermometer is placed in the rectum to a depth of about 2 centimeters and holds there for about 5 minutes. The results are recorded in a special graph of your rectal temperature. It must be remembered that the same thermometer should be used during the entire period, and the temperature should be measured every day at the same time.
During the 1st half of the cycle, rectal temperature is usually lower than 37 ° C. And 12-24 hours prior to the beginning of ovulation, the body temperature, as a rule, will decrease by 0.1-0.2 ° C, and after ovulation it becomes higher by 0.2-0.5 ° C (as a rule, to 37 ° C and higher). This temperature can stay at this level for the entire 2nd part of the cycle until the very beginning of menstruation.The fertile period begins 6 days before the so-called pre-ovulatory decline, and continues three days after it.
The advantages of this method of contraception include: ease of use, the absence of any side effects, as accurate as possible the establishment of days of possible conception in planning the onset of pregnancy.
Disadvantages are: high risk of unwanted pregnancy, the need to measure the so-called basal temperature daily.
Interrupted sexual act
This method consists in the complete removal of the penis of a man from the female vagina before the moment of ejaculation. Interrupting an act is the least effective contraceptive method. According to statistics, approximately 20 percent of couples using this method encounter an unplanned pregnancy. And in the first place, at the beginning of the sexual act, a certain number of active spermatozoa can be released with natural lubricant. In addition, not all men are able to control their body at the time of orgasm. In addition, when you have another sexual intercourse, you need to use another method of contraception to avoid getting into the vagina of the sperm.The advantages of this method include the availability and simplicity, and the disadvantages are the lack of satisfaction with the process of both partners.
EMERGENCY (or postcoital) CONTRACEPTION combines the methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies used after the end of unprotected intercourse. Most of the emergency contraceptives are sold without a prescription in pharmacies, and they are also used independently, but you should definitely contact the doctor who will choose the most optimal emergency contraceptive method for you, establish the presence of contraindications to this method and choose the desired dosage.
Douching with all sorts of solutions right after the most sexual act without protection is not a very effective method, because spermatozoa get into the cervix for 60 seconds after ejaculation. Do not forget that a small amount of valid sperm is released during sexual intercourse in the composition of the lubricant.
2) Hormonal contraceptives
The first method of using hormonal contraceptives is to apply several types of pills simultaneously.The number of tablets required for the reception will be based on the dosing of the hormonal level of drugs: Rigevidon, Femoden Mikroginon - 2 times 4 tablets (12 hours interval between doses), Logest, Novinet - 2 times 5 tablets. This method is referred to as the Yuzpe method, which is considered effective within 24 hours after the end of the sexual act without protection. The effectiveness of this method can not be called high - 75-85 percent.
The main advantage of the described method is its availability, because all drugs can be purchased without a prescription absolutely at any pharmacy. Side effects include nausea, pain in the mammary glands, and headache.
An alternative to COC can be called drugs containing only progestin, and not containing estrogen. The most effective of these drugs can be called Eskapel and Postinor. The first contains 1.5 mg of the hormone and is applied once. In Postinor contains 0.75 mg of the substance levonorgestrel and it is applied 2 times every 12 hours. Small side effects that cause hormonal methods of contraception, as a rule, disappear within 2 days.
Do not forget that after using the methods of emergency and hormonal contraception it is necessary to apply additional methods of contraception before the next menstrual cycle.
3) Emergency non-hormonal contraception
Mifepristone is one of the most effective drugs for emergency protection. A single dose of a small dose of this drug within 24 hours after an unprotected act slows down ovulation, changes the endometrium, and also prevents the fertilized egg from attaching.
This drug has a minimum of pronounced side effects, for example, the frequency of bleeding is only 15 percent, compared with 31 percent while taking levonorgestrel. The effectiveness of this method of contraception can be almost 99 percent. Among the advantages of this method are its use over a much longer period of time in comparison with other emergency contraceptives, as well as the fact that at the end of its use there are no hormone-dependent side effects.
4) Intrauterine devices
The next method to protect against unplanned pregnancy can be called the use of intrauterine devices.To achieve the desired effect, copper-containing intrauterine devices are usually administered within 5 days after the end of an unprotected sexual intercourse.
Emergency contraception can be called an alternative to abortion, but it is strongly not recommended for its use as a primary contraceptive, but only in emergency cases. The fact is that the frequent use of emergency co-trait methods can lead to a serious violation of the reproductive function of women.
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