How to choose the perfect boiler for heating water?
Tired of warming the water? You can buy a boiler and forget about the problems. How to make the right choice? What should I look for?
Type of boiler
What are boilers? There are three known types:
- Accumulative boiler, in fact, is a large tank, which receives water, which is heated in it by means of a heating element (heating element), and only then in a heated form comes to the consumer. The temperature fluctuates between 45-85 degrees, which is very convenient for many. Such a device has both advantages and disadvantages. So, it is quite economical and allows you to heat large volumes of water. And for the installation does not need a separate wiring. But to heat the water will take some time. In addition, the dimensions of this boiler are very impressive, so you will need to find a suitable place to install it.
- The flow-through boiler heats the water instantly, that is, immediately upon its arrival. In about a minute, such a device with the help of a special spiral heating element will be able to heat about 3-9 liters of water.In addition, the dimensions of the flow-through boiler are small, so you will not have to look for a special place. But there are some drawbacks. First, the maximum temperature of the water after heating usually does not exceed 60 degrees (although some do not need more). Secondly, for such a rapid heating requires a large power device, and it will not withstand any wiring (and that is why requires special wiring protection).
- The water tank is not very convenient, but sometimes only this option is possible. This device is a tank with a cover. Having opened this cover, water will need to be poured in manually. This boiler is ideal for giving or for a private house, in which there is no constant water supply. Such devices are relatively inexpensive, and yet they are quite economical. Water in the device can heat up to 80 degrees. But for heating it is necessary to spend own forces. In addition, there is a risk of overheating of the heating element.
There are only two options:
- The gas boiler will be more economical, but its installation becomes more complicated, since it is necessary to provide a ventilation system, since the combustion gas must be removed.Such devices are usually not placed in an apartment, as in an apartment building it will be very difficult to ensure proper ventilation. But in a private house such a boiler can work. The combustion chamber can be closed, that is, with a forced draft (in this case, a separate chimney will need to be installed) or open, that is, with a natural draft (a chimney is not required, but ventilation should be sufficient).
- Electric boilers are the most convenient to use, but less economical, since the costs of electricity are sometimes very, very impressive. In such devices, the method of supplying water can be pressure or non-pressure. The pressure boiler will be under pressure, which will help to keep the pressure of water. Such a device can be installed directly into the riser, from which further water distribution to different points will be carried out. Such a design can provide water for the whole house, but requires a special security system. A free-flow boiler is safer and easier, since water will still overlap at the inlet (that is, there will be no pressure). But this device will provide water heating only at one point.This option, by the way, will be the most optimal if the water pressure is unstable. When choosing an electric boiler, it is important to find out to which network it can connect. So, storage and flow with low power can be connected to the simplest single-phase network. But it is best to choose a device that works on a two-or three-phase network. In the latter case, the load will be evenly distributed, which will avoid problems.
Determination of optimal power
Boiler power affects the rate of heating water. That is, the higher this figure, the more quickly the water will heat up. The amount of power varies from 1 to 10-30 kW. As a rule, flow boilers are more powerful than cumulative. For example, a device with a power of 3-5 kW per minute will be able to heat 1.5-3 liters of water. This is quite enough for washing dishes.
If the power is about 6-8 kW, the boiler will give about 4 liters of water per minute (this option is suitable for taking a shower). But if you need large volumes of water (8-10 liters per minute), then the power should be 15-30 kW.
Usually, the optimal capacity of storage boilers ranges from 1-2 kW, which is quite enough. A normal power flow boiler is about 3-10 kW.
Determination of the optimal tank volume
To determine the optimal volume of the tank, you need to find out the needs and desired volumes of water consumed. So, firstly, determine where you install the device, and for what purposes it will use the heated water. If this is a simple sink for washing hands, then two liters per person is enough.
Dishwashing will require a volume of 10 liters per family member. If the device is installed on a shower, then the minimum volume of its tank must be at least 30 liters. If you plan to supply hot water and shower, and a sink, then the optimum volume will be 50 liters (per person). But for washing, bath and shower will require at least 100 liters. For hot water supply of the whole house it is better to choose the maximum volume equal to 400 liters.
The shape of the tank does not matter, but it can be rectangular or cylindrical. Also boilers with very thin tanks are produced.
Such a criterion as the material from which the tank is made plays an important role, because it is the life of the device and its characteristics that depend on it. Currently, materials such as plastic, stainless steel, glass ceramics, titanium alloy or enamel are used for manufacturing.Plastic coating is light, inexpensive, but short-lived.
Enamel is also an affordable option, but it can crack under the influence of high temperatures. Glass ceramics is more stable, but it is also not protected from microcracks associated with a pressure or temperature drop. Stainless to become the most durable and protected from corrosion.
But since the walls of the boilers are often very thin, they can be deformed with a high water pressure or pressure drops. The most durable and reliable titanium alloy, but this material is considered one of the most expensive.
How to choose a boiler for heating water, given the type of heating elements? There are only two options for heating elements:
- Wet TEN reminds an ordinary boiler, but, of course, in power and size it is much larger. It is immersed in water, therefore it is prone to corrosion and scale formation (regular cleaning is required). In addition, such a heating element may well fail or overheat. But the price of such a device will be quite attractive.
- Dry TEN is a heating element that is placed in a tube made of ceramics, glass or mineral materials. Such a heater will last a long time, it is protected from rust, scale and overheating.But a boiler with such an element of heating will cost much more.
Management can be manual (hydraulic) or electronic. The second option, of course, is the most convenient, since the temperature will be controlled automatically (in the first case, it may change due to pressure drops in the water or network capacity). But such models will cost much more.
Modern models of boilers are equipped with additional features. Here are some possible:
- Heating time indicator.
- Auto shut off.
- Protection of heating elements from overheating.
- Express heat or slow heat.
- Gas boilers can be equipped with a gas control system, which allows to stop the operation when the gas supply stops.
Make the right choice, because your comfort will depend on it.
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