Otitis in a child, treatment of otitis in children
Otitis in a child, treatment of otitis in children.
The child's ear ached ... How to overcome otitis media?
Sometimes it happens that the always cheerful and sociable baby, having lost interest in your favorite toys, suddenly starts crying loudly. He would like to eat cookies, but all attempts to swallow even a small piece end with a new fit of crying. He would like to sleep, but constantly turns, not finding a comfortable position. Maybe the baby's ear is inflamed.
There are no such fathers and mothers who could watch with peace of mind how their baby suffers. However, not knowing what to do, they just helplessly shrug. In this situation, parents usually panic. To prevent this from happening, you should receive comprehensive information about the disease in advance. In addition, in time to identify the disease, you can get proper treatment and avoid the development of complications. In general, ear diseases in children are inflammatory in nature and have their own name - otitis.Translated from the Greek, otos means ear, and the suffix - itis indicates an inflammatory process in the organ. Otitis can be acute and chronic.
Inflammatory diseases of the external ear in children.
In children, external otitis is the most common. It develops when mechanical damage occurs on the skin of the ear canal (during scratching or when cleaning the ears). In this area, the infection begins to multiply, redness and edema quickly arise, and the auditory canal itself may decrease, becoming a narrow slit. In most cases, a turbid liquid begins to seep from the ear.
From other diseases of the ear can be distinguished erysipelas, the causative agent of which is streptococcus. The bacterium enters the ear in the same way as with external otitis. Erysipelas is manifested by redness of the auricle and its edema. In the area of the ear canal, a child may have bubbles. Accompanied by these phenomena high fever (up to 39 degrees), chills and refusal to eat.
Another disease that occurs in children - an inflammation of the hair sac, the so-called furuncle of the external auditory canal.A major role in its occurrence is played by minor skin lesions and weakened immunity. It is usually difficult to notice a boil, but some symptoms allow it to be suspected. So, when feeling the patient's ear and chewing, there is an increase in pain. Parotenous lymph nodes are enlarged. After a few days, the abscess ripens and bursts, and the pain diminishes. The boil will be resolved without complications if a diagnosis is made in time and adequate treatment is started.
Tactics of otitis treatment of the external ear
First of all, it is necessary to assess the general condition of the child and outline an action plan in the fight against the disease. If the disease is mild, i.e. The condition of the child does not suffer much; you can treat it at home using lotions and ointments. In severe and severe impairment of well-being, the child should be hospitalized in the hospital, where an examination and more serious treatment will be prescribed (antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.). It is important to understand that in this and in another case it is impossible to give medicines to a child independently. Treatment should be prescribed only by a doctor.
Inflammation of the middle ear in a child
Otitis media can have acute and chronic course. According to the frequency of occurrence, the first place is occupied by acute otitis media. As a rule, premature and weak children with weak immunity fall ill. Babies who get artificial milk instead of breast milk are also prone to developing otitis media, because there are no protective antibodies that are rich in breast milk. During a cold, the pathogen from the nasopharynx enters the cavity of the middle ear, thereby causing an inflammatory process there. The small length and relatively large width of the auditory tube in children allows microbes to freely make their way. Most of the time babies are in a horizontal position, which contributes to the disruption of mucus outflow and leads to its stagnation in the nasopharynx, which also contributes to inflammation of the middle ear. In infants, otitis may also lead to leaking of milk from the oropharynx into the cavity of the middle ear.
Acute otitis media can have a catarrhal and purulent form. There is catarrhal otitis with severe pain in the ear. The worst part is that a small child is not able to communicate his complaints to others.His sleep is disturbed, he constantly cries or just screams loudly, refuses food, because due to painful sensations he can not swallow and chew. Calms down only when lying on the side of the affected ear. The kid tries to reach the sick ear and rub it. To determine from which side the inflammation will help such a test: when pressing on the protruding section in front of the ear canal (trestle), the child will cry out in pain. For proper evaluation, the test is best done during sleep. In addition to this, the baby becomes sluggish, inhibited, or, conversely, agitated. He has a high fever, vomiting and a loose stool.
Acute otitis media (middle ear inflammation) from the catarrhal form can easily (sometimes even during the first day) go into purulent. In this case, the eardrum is broken and pus is released from the ear. Despite the pain subsided and the apparent improvement, the child needs urgent medical attention at this stage. In this case, you need to insert a dry sterile wick into the diseased ear, fasten it with a cap and consult a doctor.
Acute middle catarrhal otitis is dangerous for its complications.Often in children, the process moves to the mastoid process of the temporal bone and causes inflammation there — mastoiditis. The child has pain no longer in the ear, but behind it. The skin in the ear region turns red and swollen, and the ear strongly protrudes. In this case, the baby will tilt his head in a sore side.
No less serious complication is meningeal syndrome (irritation of the lining of the brain). It develops as a result of the transition of the inflammatory process beyond the middle ear cavity (for inflammation of the middle ear). This happens because in children the walls of the tympanum are poorly developed and the structures of the middle ear are well supplied with blood. As a result, the child begins to vomit, clouding of consciousness, seizures, convulsions and lethargy. He occupies a forced position, throwing his head back.
Otitis treatment in children
If you suspect otitis media, you need to contact the children's clinic and call a pediatrician to the house. If a child has clear signs of ear inflammation, it is better to immediately, without waiting for the district police officer, show the baby to the otolaryngologist. Basically, in case of acute otitis media, the doctor prescribes a general treatment of otitis for a child, which will include antibacterial drugs, vasoconstrictor nasal drops and local treatment of otitis.To prevent complications, it is necessary to treat the child for at least 5-7 days, especially if he has not reached three years.
Be sure to hold and localtreatment of otitis media in children. Various thermal procedures help well: half-alcohol or vodka compresses, heating with a reflector. In case of purulent otitis, an introduction to the auditory meatus of tampons impregnated with antiseptics and antibiotics is shown. Before this, a mandatory procedure is the removal of pus from the auditory cavity.
Auxiliary treatment can be physiotherapy. When otitis shows UFO, UHF, laser therapy and mud therapy.
The course of treatment of acute otitis media in children is 1 week, and purulent otitis media - 14 days.
It is important to remember that, depending on the period of illness, the tactics of treatment of otitis media will be different. At the same time, prescribing an antibiotic, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of microorganisms to this drug. There are situations when you need to replace the drug. Given this factor, it is highly undesirable for parents to use the experience of the previous treatment in order not to provoke undesirable consequences and not to mask the picture of the disease, thereby making it difficult to make a diagnosis.
Local treatment of otitis media according to the rules:
Use of compresses
Compresses can be used only for catarrhal otitis media, they are contraindicated for purulent otitis. How to make a compress at home? It consists of four layers:
- 1 layer - folded gauze
- 2 layer - wax paper or oilcloth
- 3 layer - a piece of wool
- 4 layer - diaper or kerchief for compressing
- Each successive layer should exceed the previous by 2 cm in area.
- Folding gauze, you need to make it a hole for the ear and moisten the vodka in a solution of alcohol.
- Then each layer is alternately superimposed and everything is fixed with a diaper around the head of the child. The compress lasts 3 - 4 hours.
Without inspection of the ENT doctor, it is dangerous to instill drops containing alcohol in the ears. In case of violation of the integrity of the eardrum, the solution enters directly into the cavity of the middle ear and can cause damage to the auditory ossicles and the auditory nerve. This leads to deafness. Therefore, in order not to harm, the medicine must be administered on a tampon (turunda). It is necessary to do this in such a way: by inserting a turunda into the ear, drip medicine on it, warmed to body temperature. To warm up the medicine, it is enough to hold the bottle with it for a few minutes in hot water.You can heat the hot water in the pipette first, and then take the medicine, or you can first take the medicine and heat the pipette with it.
It should be noted that it will not be superfluous to have ear drops at home with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. Such properties are possessed by Otypaks, which can be bought in a pharmacy without a prescription.
Recommendations for the care of a sick child
- It is necessary to give the child the opportunity to breathe freely with his nose. To do this, you need to regularly clean the nose of accumulated mucus, using a special pear for suction or cotton flagella soaked in baby oil.
- The child's ears must be warm, so during the day he needs to be in a hat or cap.
- It is not recommended to bathe the baby when he is sick. It will be enough to wipe it daily with warm water.
- It should not be taken for a walk until normal body temperature is restored and earache subsides. On the street, the child should be in a hat.
Complicated cases of otitis media must be treated surgically.
Acute otitis media can turn into chronic.This process occurs under the influence of many factors. These include: reduction of local and general immunity, the presence of chronic diseases, rickets, diabetes.
Chronic otitis is favored by prolonged rhinitis, an increase in adenoids (accumulations of lymphoid tissue in the nose), and a deviated septum. The main symptom of chronic otitis is a persistent, intermittent discharge of pus from the ear. When examining the eardrum, the doctor will see a hole in it. With this form of the disease, the child’s hearing will gradually deteriorate.
Diseases of the middle ear is not purulent character in a child
These include tubootitis (eustachitis). This is a disease in which inflammation occurs in the mucous membrane of the auditory (Eustachian) tube. As a result, its lumen narrows, the child feels the noise, as well as congestion in the ears. This leads to one or two-sided hearing loss. When yawning and blowing out, hearing is usually getting better.
The approach to the treatment of tubotitis in children should be comprehensive. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the cause of the disease - to cure a cold, to remove chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx and, if necessary, to agree on the removal of enlarged adenoids.
Treatment of the inflammatory process is carried out using systemic antibiotics and local treatment. A very effective therapeutic measure is the introduction of the drug into the ear directly through the auditory tube. This manipulation should be carried out by the ENT doctor.
How to avoid otitis, to save the child
Prevention of otitis media for the smallest will be breastfeeding, since the mother's milk contains protective factors necessary for the infant to fight infection.
During feeding you need to keep the child in a semi-vertical position in order to avoid throwing the contents from the nasopharynx into the auditory tube.
Proper hardening increases the body's defenses.
If the child is still ill, you need to systematically free his nasal passages from mucus to prevent the contents from stagnating. Since in the horizontal position there is a high probability of leakage discharged into the auditory tube, it is necessary to turn the child from one side to the other more often.
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