Chemical composition of canned food
At the same sterilization temperature, the lethal time can be different if the chemical composition of the canned food is different.
First of all, the active acidity of the product is important. The lower the canned, that is, the higher the acidity, the shorter the lethal time.
It is also important not only the nature of the acid itself. So, at the same value, lactic acid inhibits microbes more than acetic acid.
Further bactericidal action have phytoncides, which are rich in such types of spicy-flavor raw materials as onions, garlic, horse-radish and mustard. At the same temperature and active acidity, the lethal time will be less for those products in which there are phytoncides.
The process of coagulation of cytoplasm proteins of microbial cells, leading to their death, is a process of hydration, going with the participation of water. Therefore, if there are fats in the canned food, the microbial cells trapped in the fat droplets are isolated from the surrounding moist environment and it takes more time to destroy them.
In fact, for the same reason, more time is required for the destruction of microorganisms by thermal sterilization in the presence of large amounts of sugar in the food product. At high sugar concentrations, the microbial cell is dehydrated by the osmotic route and, due to its physiological dryness, it becomes more resistant to heat.
Finally, table salt has a certain effect on the deadly time. With relatively small amounts of salt, up to 2.5%, it, like sugar, osmotically sucks moisture from microbial cells and makes them more resistant to heat. At high concentrations, salt contributes to the coagulation of microbial cell protoplasm proteins and lethal time is shortened.
Types of microorganisms and their number. Lethal time is highly dependent on the nature of the microflora that can develop in a given food product, since the ability to tolerate high temperatures in different microbes is not the same, and the vegetative bacteria cells die much faster than spores. So, the deadly time for most vegetative cells is only a few minutes at a temperature of 60-80 ° C.The deadly time for an argument is very long. For example, the deadly time for spores of botulism pathogen (strain A) at 100 ° С reaches 300 minutes.
The number of microorganisms present in the can at the beginning of sterilization has a very large impact on the lethal time. The more canned seeds are germinated with microbes, the longer it takes to destroy them. For example, if in one case there is a 50,000 dispute in a bank and it takes 65 minutes to destroy them, then in a bank containing 50 disputes, the lethal time will drop to 22 minutes. Considering these figures, one should pay attention not to the fact that the number of disputes has decreased by 1000 times, and the lethal time has decreased only by 3 times. It is important that while reducing the contamination time can be reduced by 3 times, i.e. in proportion to the ratio of the logarithms of the number of cells, and if we calculated the sterilization time on the assumption that there are only 50 spores in the bank, and because of poor sanitary conditions contamination reached 50 thousand spores, then at the end of sterilization not all microbes will be destroyed and as a result a large number of spoiled cans will appear during storage.
So, if we consider that the high contamination of the product by microorganisms at the beginning of sterilization indicates a low sanitary condition of production, it becomes clear that cleanliness at all stages of the technological process is the first guarantee of the release of benign products.
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